sch19 | Hájek & Hájková in Chytrý (2011: 619, 662) argued for rejecting the name Caricion fuscae Koch 1926 as nomen ambiguum, because the relevés presented in the original diagnosis feature the Caricion davallianae communities, and the name Caricion fuscae was never used for this type of vegetation. In all subsequent studies, the Caricion fuscae was used either for moderately rich or poor fens or both. The Caricion fuscae was typified in Rivas-Martínez et al. (2011) by choosing the Caricetum nigrae J. Braun 1915 as the typus. This typification is superfluous because the alliance is automatically typified by the Caricetum fuscae (ICPN art. 20). Koch (1926) did not publish a diagnosis of this association, but referred to older descriptions of the Caricetum fuscae in the text. However, none of these descriptions represents the Caricion fuscae in the current sense. Therefore we propose to conserve the name Caricion fuscae Koch 1926 with a conserved type − in order to use this well established name for moderate to lowly calcium-rich slightly acidic fens dominated by calcifuge brown-mosses or nutrient-demanding peat-mosses of Europe. (MH, LM, JPT, WW).
Acrocladion Traas 1963
Calamagrostion neglectae Pałczynski 1975
Carici-Nardion V. Ranđelović ex V. Ranđelović et Zlatković 2010
(2b, 3b, 5)
Caricion canescenti-goodenowii Nordhagen 1937
– sch22 Besides presenting a list of sociations belonging to this order, Nordhagen (1937) further stated: "Das Caricetum fuscae von Dutoit (1924: 28) und dasjenige Braun-Blanquets aus Auvergne (1926a: 43) reihen sich aber wieder unserem Caricion canescentis-goodenowii zwanglos an." Both Dutoit´s (1924) and Braun-Blanquet´s (1926a) associations were validly described and represent moderately rich fens. The alliance is therefore validly described. (MH) The formal proposal for the mutation of the name has been presented by Dengler et al. (2004: 358) and by Hájek & Hájková (in Chytrý 2011: 660). (LM).
Caricion canescenti-nigrae Nordhagen ex Tx. 1937 corr. Timmermann in Dengler et al. 2004
Caricion canescenti-nigrae Nordhagen 1937
Caricion canescentis Kalliola 1939
Caricion curto-nigrae (Koch 1926) Westhoff et Den Held 1969
Caricion lasiocarpae sensu auct. p.p., non Vanden Berghen in Lebrun et al. 1949
Caricion nigrae Koch 1926 nom. mut. propos.
– sch20 Steiner (1993b: 142; see also Theurillat 1997), Rivas-Martínez et al. (2002a: 253) and Dengler et al. (2004: 358) formally suggested this name change. This case was handled by the Nomenclature Commission, yet no conclusion has been met (Willner et al. 2011). In case the Caricion fuscae Koch 1926 becomes recognised as nomen ambiguum, this name mutation becomes obsolete. (LM).
Droserion intermediae Succow 1974
Eriophorion gracilis Oberd. 1956
Eriophorion gracilis Preising ex Oberd. 1957
– sch23 This alliance is typified by the Rhynchosporo-Caricetum chordorrhizae (Paul et Lutz 1941) Oberd. 1957 (see Koska in Dengler et al. 2004). The type material of this association is rather heterogeneous with respect to pH and physiognomy of moss layer, but most relevés suggest that this unit is close to the Caricion fuscae. (MH).
Rhynchosporion albae Koch 1926
– sch21 The Rhynchosporion albae Koch 1926 was described as vegetation of minerotrophic fens with diagnostic species such as Rhynchospora alba, Agrostis canina and three Sphagnum of the sect. Subsecunda, of which S. subsecundum dominates. These species indicate moderately mineral-rich but acidic fens traditionally assigned to the Caricion fuscae and they are not bog-hollow species at any account. Of all species listed in the original diagnosis, only Rhynchospora alba can thrive in ombrotrophic bog hollows. There was a group of nutrient-demanding grassland species, some other Caricetalia fuscae species (e.g. Carex echinata), reed-bed and even some calcicolous elements (Carex davalliana) listed as the accompanying species. However, the name Rhynchosporion albae has frequently been misinterpreted as vegetation of dystrophic bog pools (e.g. Steiner 1992; Pott 1995; Gerdol & Tomaselli 1997; Philippi in Oberdorfer 1998: 221–272; Matuszkiewicz 2001). The need to distinguish between the ombrotrophic bog hollows and moderately calcium-rich minerotrophic fens is emphasised by some authors (e.g. Dengler et al. 2004; Lapshina 2010). The name could therefore represent a case of nomen ambiguum. If not rejected, it should be either considered as a syntaxonomic synomym of the Caricion fuscae following its nomenclature type) or used only for the permanently waterlogged, moderately rich fens of the Caricetalia fuscae. The vegetation of the ombrotrophic bog hollows should then be classified within the Scheuchzerion palustris. (MH). KD disagrees with this account and suggests using the name Rhynchosporion albae Koch 1926 for the vegetation of dystrophic bog pools.