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This is a list of phytosociological classes, orders and alliances of European vegetation according to Mucina et al. (2016).

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Mucina L., Bültmann H., Dierßen K., Theurillat J.-P., Raus T., Čarni A., … Tichý L. (2016). Vegetation of Europe: Hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities. Applied Vegetation Science, 19(Suppl. 1), 3–264. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12257

This is a list of phytosociological classes, orders and alliances of European vegetation according to Mucina et al. (2016) modified by Willner (2022).

Data source and citation

Mucina L., Bültmann H., Dierßen K., Theurillat J.-P., Raus T., Čarni A., … Tichý L. (2016). Vegetation of Europe: Hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities. Applied Vegetation Science, 19(Suppl. 1), 3–264. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12257

The list of habitats of the EUNIS Habitat Classification at the hierarchical levels 1, 2 and 3 in a spreadsheet format.

Data source and citation

Chytrý M., Tichý L., Hennekens S.M., Knollová I., Janssen J.A.M., Rodwell J.S., … Schaminée J.H.J. (2020). EUNIS Habitat Classification: expert system, characteristic species combinations and distribution maps of European habitats. Applied Vegetation Science, 23(4), 648–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12519 – Version 2021-06-01: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4812736

The factsheets for individual habitats of the EUNIS Habitat Classification were prepared based on the vegetation-plot data from the European Vegetation Archive (EVA; Chytrý et al. 2016; http://euroveg.org/eva-database) and other databases classified by the expert system EUNIS-ESy v2021-06-01. Each factsheet includes a brief habitat description, distribution map, corresponding alliances of EuroVegChecklist ( Mucina et al. 2016) and characteristic species combination divided into diagnostic, constant and dominant species.

Data source and citation

Chytrý M., Tichý L., Hennekens S.M., Knollová I., Janssen J.A.M., Rodwell J.S., … Schaminée J.H.J. (2020). EUNIS Habitat Classification: expert system, characteristic species combinations and distribution maps of European habitats. Applied Vegetation Science, 23(4), 648–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12519 – Version 2021-06-01: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4812736

Further references

Chytrý M., Hennekens S.M., Jiménez-Alfaro B., Knollová I., Dengler J., Jansen F., … Yamalov S. (2016). European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots. Applied Vegetation Science, 19(1), 173–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12191
Mucina L., Bültmann H., Dierßen K., Theurillat J.-P., Raus T., Čarni A., … Tichý L. (2016). Vegetation of Europe: Hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities. Applied Vegetation Science, 19(Suppl. 1), 3–264. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12257

Characteristic species combinations for EUNIS habitats at the hierarchical level 3 include diagnostic, constant and dominant species calculated from the vegetation-plot data from the European Vegetation Archive (EVA; Chytrý et al. 2016; http://euroveg.org/eva-database) and other databases classified by the expert system EUNIS-ESy v2021-06-01.

Diagnostic species are species with occurrences concentrated in a particular habitat, being absent or rare in other habitats. As such, they are useful as positive indicators of the habitat. However, diagnostic species may be absent from the habitat at many sites. Diagnostic species were determined based on species fidelity, i.e. the degree of concentration of species occurrences in each group of plots representing a Level 3 EUNIS habitat. Fidelity was calculated using the phi coefficient of association (Sokal and Rohlf, 1995; Chytrý et al., 2002), standardized as if each habitat was represented by the same number of plots (Tichý and Chytrý, 2006). The species with a value of phi greater than 0.15 for a particular habitat were considered diagnostic for this habitat. However, the concentration of species occurrences in the habitat, even if expressed by a high value of the phi coefficient, may not be statistically significant for some habitats represented by a low number of plots in the data set. Therefore, the statistical significance of the species–habitat association was tested using Fisher's exact test (Sokal and Rohlf, 1995), and if not significant at p < 0.05, the species was excluded from the list of diagnostic species (Tichý and Chytrý, 2006).

Constant species are species that occur frequently but not necessarily exclusively in a particular habitat: some of them may be generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats. These species were defined as those with a constancy (= percentage occurrence frequency) of at least 10% in the target habitat.

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in a particular habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy. Dominant species were defined as those that occurred with a cover greater than 25% in at least 5% of vegetation plots classified to the target habitat. This means that a species is considered as dominant even if it does not belong to the tallest vegetation layer, and a single plot can have more than one dominant species. Conversely, a habitat can have no dominant species, especially if it has sparse vegetation cover.

Data source and citation

Chytrý M., Tichý L., Hennekens S.M., Knollová I., Janssen J.A.M., Rodwell J.S., … Schaminée J.H.J. (2020). EUNIS Habitat Classification: expert system, characteristic species combinations and distribution maps of European habitats. Applied Vegetation Science, 23(4), 648–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12519 – Version 2021-06-01: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4812736

Further references

Chytrý M., Tichý L., Holt J. & Botta-Dukát Z. (2002). Determination of diagnostic species with statistical fidelity measures. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13(1), 79–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2002.tb02025.x
Chytrý M., Hennekens S.M., Jiménez-Alfaro B., Knollová I., Dengler J., Jansen F., … Yamalov S. (2016). European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots. Applied Vegetation Science, 19(1), 173–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12191
Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. (1995). Biometry, 3rd edition. New York, NY: Freeman.
Tichý L. & Chytrý M. (2006). Statistical determination of diagnostic species for site groups of unequal size. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17(6), 809–818. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2006.tb02504.x

Disturbance indicator values for European plants (Midolo et al. 2022) define mean optima along gradients of natural and anthropogenic disturbance for 6,382 vascular plant species. They were derived from analysis of 736,366 European vegetation plots and expert-based characterization of disturbance regimes in 236 habitat types. The dataset contains five main continuous indicator values for European plants: disturbance severity, disturbance frequency, mowing frequency, grazing pressure and soil disturbance. The first two indicators are provided separately for the whole community and the herb layer.

Data source and citation

Midolo, G., Herben, T., Axmanová, I., Marcenò, C., Pätsch, R., Bruelheide, H., Karger D.N., Aćić, S., Bergamini, A., Bergmeier, E., Biurrun, I., Bonari, G., Čarni, A., Chiarucci, A., De Sanctis, M., Demina, O., Dengler, J., Dziuba, T., Fanelli, G., Garbolino, E., Giusso del Galdo, G., Goral, F., Güler, B., Hinojos-Mendoza, G., Jansen, F., Jiménez-Alfaro, B., Lengyel, A., Lenoir, J., Pérez-Haase, A., Pielech, R., Prokhorov, V., Rašomavičius, V., Ruprecht, E., Rūsiņa, S., Šilc, U., Škvorc, Ž., Stančić, Z., Tatarenko, I., & Chytrý, M. (2022). Disturbance indicator values for European plants. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Accepted for publication). https://doi.org/10.1111/GEB.13603

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