R21 Mesic permanent pasture of lowlands and mountains

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The most common and widespread kind of traditionally managed pasture on deeper, well-drained mesic soils throughout temperate Europe, with many local types related to regional climate, terrain and pastoral traditions. Typically dominated by mixtures of productive grasses and herbs, it can be species-rich with distinctive scarce and rare plants where low input grazing and manuring are maintained. Often once part of wider pastoral landscapes with associated meadows, it is now widely transformed by intensive grazing.

Chytrý M., Tichý L., Hennekens S.M., Knollová I., Janssen J.A.M., Rodwell J.S. … Schaminée J.H.J. (2020) EUNIS Habitat Classification: expert system, characteristic species combinations and distribution maps of European habitats. Applied Vegetation Science 23: 648–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12519

Version 2021-06-01, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4812736.

For the official presentation of the EUNIS Habitat Classification from the European Environment Agency, please see: EUNIS Terrestrial Habitat Classification 2021. The FloraVeg.EU presentation may show modifications and partial updates to the habitat classification.

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