R1S Heavy-metal grassland in Western and Central Europe

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Short open sward with a distinctive metallophyte component, occurring on shallow, skeletal soils over natural rock exposures with heavy metals in western and Central Europe, on mine spoil or ground contaminated by dust and waters from such sources. Typically it occurs in small patches in the landscapes, colonising slowly and sustained by the extreme environment. Sometimes it is dependent on grazing by wild herbivores that maintain early successional stages that are richer in cryptogams.

Chytrý M., Tichý L., Hennekens S.M., Knollová I., Janssen J.A.M., Rodwell J.S. … Schaminée J.H.J. (2020) EUNIS Habitat Classification: expert system, characteristic species combinations and distribution maps of European habitats. Applied Vegetation Science 23: 648–675. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12519

Version 2021-06-01, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4812736.

For the official presentation of the EUNIS Habitat Classification from the European Environment Agency, please see: EUNIS Terrestrial Habitat Classification 2021. The FloraVeg.EU presentation may show modifications and partial updates to the habitat classification.

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